Help me out Boyz.. i am beginners

General discussion about PLUC and Linux in Pakistan.

Help me out Boyz.. i am beginners

Postby pakgeostar » Sat Aug 20, 2005 3:51 pm

salamz!!!
Hope all of you will be fine by the grace of God.

I have a problem to be solved..if anyone from you could tell me that how could i start the installation of redhat Linux 9.0 installation from a Fat32 hardrive. I've copied all three Cd's as CD1,Cd2,CD3 folders..now how to start installation.. and also please giveme brief information about using Linux partiotioning system

waiting for your replies
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Postby pakgeostar » Sat Aug 20, 2005 3:55 pm

and if there's need to burn Bootable Cds then how could i burn it..
i've tried to burn Cd by copying data as it is but its not booting.. can anyone also help me in buring"BOOTABLE LINUX CDS"???
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Postby lambda » Sat Aug 20, 2005 6:12 pm

pakgeostar wrote:and if there's need to burn Bootable Cds then how could i burn it..

burn a cd image, not "data." i'm assuming you have nero or something similar.
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Postby lambda » Sat Aug 20, 2005 6:15 pm

don't install redhat 9. it is obsolete. get fedora core 4, ubuntu, anything else.
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Postby pakgeostar » Sat Aug 20, 2005 8:07 pm

I've Fedora Core2 data but same problem here..just tell me how to create bootable CD's
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Postby pakgeostar » Sat Aug 20, 2005 8:21 pm

Yaar!!!If anyone from you could send me CD's of RedHat Linux 9 or Fedora Core4 ....Please Please please
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Re:

Postby LinuxFreaK » Sun Aug 21, 2005 12:54 am

Dear pakgeostar,
Salam,

FYI, http://gd.tuwien.ac.at/opsys/linux/Linu ... stall.html

Best Regards
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Salam

Postby AsadRasheed » Sun Aug 21, 2005 1:55 am

pakgeostar wrote:Yaar!!!If anyone from you could send me CD's of RedHat Linux 9 or Fedora Core4 ....Please Please please


Dear pakgeostar,

http://www.linuxpakistan.net/software/

Regards,
M Asad Rasheed
registered linux user #394856
http://www.bsdpakistan.org
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Postby pakgeostar » Sun Aug 21, 2005 7:54 am

thanks for replying
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Postby mahin » Sun Aug 21, 2005 11:15 am

pakgeostar wrote:and if there's need to burn Bootable Cds then how could i burn it..
i've tried to burn Cd by copying data as it is but its not booting.....

Under Linux use command line to burn CD's it is very simple, just check the howto written by Shirwany there is much better howto [ with images and all those bells and wistles :) but for that you will have to ask Anjum Butt ] not yet released /finished by Anjum Butt.

Always burn ISO image at 8x, will take few minute more but will work with every CD Rom.

shirwany wrote:Asslam o alaikum,

you can try command line tools. The following is a list of instructions to write a CD using linux.

Step 1: Create an iso9660 filesystem

% mkisofs -r -o cdimage.iso storage

This command has put the entire input "storage" hierarchy in the output file "cdimage" in the form of an iso9660 filesystem. The option '-r' sets the permissions of all files to be public readable on the CD and enables Rock Ridge extensions.

You might want to verify that mkisofs has created the filesystem correctly.
% mount -t iso9660 -o ro,loop=/dev/loop0 cdimage.iso /tmp

You should see the directories and files inside `storage' in the directory /tmp if all went well. After you are satisfied you should unmount /tmp as:

% umount /tmp

Step 2: Write the image to the CD
% cdrecord -v dev=0,0,0 speed=4 cdimage.iso

For this to work you do not have to be root. The speed option corresponds to the writing speed of my CD (4X media). -v lets you see the writing progress.

If you are writing to a CD-rewritable, you have to erase the disk prior to reuse. To do so type

% cdrecord dev=0,0,0 speed=4 blank=all

To get the device info use
% cdrecord -scanbus
For me it is
0,0,0 0) 'PLEXTOR ' 'CD-R PX-W2410A' '1.04' Removable CD-ROM

I have tried xcdroast, koncd and gtoaster but command line method always work. You can also write multisession cds.


Allah hafiz
Shirwany

(Most of the information found here is directly from the CD-Writing mini-HOWTO (by Winfried Trumper).
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Postby pakgeostar » Sun Aug 21, 2005 6:24 pm

Mahin ?? i am an average Windows user so if you could please gimme link to it and also remember i m using XP SP2
Thanks
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Postby mahin » Sun Aug 21, 2005 6:48 pm

pakgeostar wrote:Mahin ?? i am an average Windows user so if you could please gimme link to it and also remember i m using XP SP2
Thanks


No problem!

Read the link LinuxFreak has suggested then ask specific question.

Meanwhile post here your PC specs [ processor, ram, modem, hard disk size and partitions etc ] so others can help you.

I could be wrong but looks like to me that you have plenty of bandwidth, if so then you may like to dowload Gobolinux and burn that to a CD and use it as live [ it can be installed also ] CD for partioning , normal use etc. It has file system very similar to Window's, every thing gui so it would be easy for you, IMHO it is better then RH 9.

CD burning is one task that is simple in comand line then GUI, wait till you install Linux meanwhile on Windoz follow what lambda told you.
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Postby pakgeostar » Sun Aug 21, 2005 11:19 pm

My PC specs are
2.4 G celeron PC
256 MB RAM
80 GB Hdd
DVD-Drive
is it enough
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u can use kickstart

Postby zaki486 » Mon Aug 22, 2005 12:33 pm

use kickstart a file for pre-configured installations, and i think u want to start installation of linux from Win SP2?

hmm?

if u want Fedora Core 4 bring me 4 Cds i`ll do it for u buddy contact me

zaki486@hotmail.com
zaki486@yahoo.com
zaki486@gawab.com
0300-8902692

;)
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Re:

Postby LinuxFreaK » Tue Aug 23, 2005 12:57 am

Red Hat Hard Drive Installation
Last updated: November 23, 1998
Development stage: Alpha

To prevent any confusion, this is when you download the required files through FTP to your hard drive. This will also work if you copied the contents of the CD-ROM to your hard drive for reasons such as unsupported CD-ROM type. Just remember, if you're copying from CD-ROM, don't download what you already have.

If it's not too inconvenient, I would suggest buying a CD-ROM from CheapBytes or Linux System Labs to save you much trouble in downloading.
Download It

The first thing you do is make sure you have at least 500 megs free on your hard drive so that you can download the tree (the files you need in order to install Red Hat Linux) and so you can split it up. Before you play with partitioning, be sure to defragment the DOS partition that you're going to split so that all your data is at the beginning of the hard drive and you don`t lose anything in the process of resizing. After you've done that, find a site with the Red Hat distribution. Below is a list of fast ones that I've used myself.

The username is 'anonymous' or 'ftp', and the password is usually whatever you want it to be. Some FTP sites will only let you in if you use your e-mail address as the password, like you should be doing.

* sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/distributions/redhat/current
* ftp.cc.gatech.edu/pub/linux/distributions/redhat/current

When downloading, the first thing you have to do is create a tree structure like this example. (unless your FTP program creates all the subdirectories for you; I heard WS_FTP does it)

C:\REDHAT\
|----> RedHat - a subdirectory of C:\RedHat\, so it'll be C:\RedHat\RedHat
|----> RPMS -- binary packages - important
|----> base -- small filesystem setup archives - important
|----> instimage -- image used for graphical installs
|----> images -- boot and ramdisk images - download to follow this guide
|----> dosutils -- installation utilities for DOS - download to follow this guide
|----> doc -- various FAQs and HOWTOs
|----> misc -- source files, install trees
|----> COPYING -- copyright information
|----> RPM-PGP-KEY -- PGP signature for packages from Red Hat
|----> SRPMS -- Source RPMS for Red Hat distribution (not really needed unless you want to build RPMs)

Make sure that you have all the files in "RPMS" and "base". If you miss one critical package, you could potentially mess up your installation. However, some large packages you probably won't need immediately are TeX, LaTeX, and Emacs. Those are pretty large packages that I haven't found much use for. You can download them later, though, if you need them.

You don't need to get the SRPMS directory. In fact, according to Matt Alcala all you need for a successful installation is the "RPMS" directory and the "base" directory. Also get the stuff in the "images" directory.
Backup?

I suggest you do not take chances and backup your system before you attempt to install it (if you have the ability and hardware to do so).

If you can't do a backup, at least defragment your DOS/Windows partition so you can repartition your hard drive later.

Of course, if you want to rid your system of Microsoft altogether, you can just delete your DOS/Windows partition.
Getting Into Red Hat Installation

After downloading it all, either get the boot image (it should be C:\RedHat\images\BOOT.IMG) or Autoboot (AUTOBOOT.BAT). Some prefer Autoboot because it boots from MS-DOS mode and runs Red Hat setup in a snap. If you get the bootdisk, get RAWRITE.EXE (in the DOSUTILS directory on the FTP server) also and "rawrite" it to a formatted floppy disk. Make sure you have the supplementary image (C:\RedHat\images\SUPP.IMG (so you can put in the supplementary disk when Red Hat Installation asks for it) and rawrite that to another formatted floppy. Set those aside for later.

When you're using RAWRITE, it will ask you to specify the source and target. The source should be whatever .IMG file you're trying to write to the disk, and the target should usually be A:, or whatever your floppy drive is.

Reboot with the bootdisk that has the image BOOT.IMG on it. This will take you to Red Hat's installation program. Once you're in there, it will ask at some point to insert the supplementary disk (the one with SUPP.IMG on it). Insert the supplementary disk and you're ready to go.
Creating, Deleting, and Re-creating Your Partitions

Next, you have to repartition your hard drive. It's possible to install Linux on a second hard drive; just pick which one. The devices are as follows:

* /dev/hda is the device on the primary master
* /dev/hdb is the device on the primary slave
* /dev/hdc is the device on the secondary master
* /dev/hdd is the device on the seconary slave

When there are partitions on the hard drive that you choose, the device will be followed by a number according to its partition number. For example, if you have a partition on your secondary master hard drive, it might be /dev/hdb2 if it's the second partition.
Linux "fdisk"

In Red Hat install, when it gives you the option of using either Disk Druid or fdisk, choose what you want (I like fdisk) and do the following:

1. Make a primary partition (n).
2. Tag it as Linux native (t).
3. Make an extended partition (n).
4. Make a logical partition (n) and tag it as Linux swap (t).

The extended partition is there so that the logical partition can overwrite it and exist within it. The number of blocks you specify determines how many megabytes that the partition will take up. If you want to use space from an already existing DOS FAT partition, you should remove the existing partition first and then make another one, then tag it as "DOS 16-bit > 32", in most cases. However, make sure the DOS partition was defragmented before you repartition. Primary partitions should be numbers 1-4, as well as your extended partition. The logical partition, though it takes up the same cylinders as your extended partition, can only exist as partition number 5 and above.
Using the Partitioning Program

The "fdisk" should present you with a menu if you press 'm' upon starting them. Among the most useful commands to me are the following:

* Print partition table (p) - This will display information about what partitions you have. It's not necessarily what is already written to the partition table, it's what it is configured to write to the partition table upon exit with writing (w).
* Write table to disk and exit (w) - This will write the changes that you've made to your hard drive. When you changed the settings, they didn't really change the partition layout of the hard drive as soon as you made the changes. It just set it up for when you use this option to change your partitions.
* Add a new partition (n) - What this does should be pretty self-evident. However, you might have to delete a partition that's taking up the entire hard drive first, then re-create it.
* Delete a partition (d) - Use this to delete partitions that are already existing in order to make room for a Linux partition, or to delete partitions that you created by accident.
* Tag a partition (t) - Also known as changing a partition's system ID, using this on a Linux partition will get it to be recognized. You MUST use this after the Linux partition is created, or else it won't be recognized.
* List known partition types (l) - To be used with tagging a partition. This is so that operating systems will know what kind of partitions are on the hard drive. This helped me to figure out what number to use to tag my Linux partition as, and also my Linux swap partition.

All you have to do is re-create your DOS partition with a different size to leave room for Linux, create a primary partition, tag it as Linux native (83), create an extended partition (numbers 1-4), create a logical partition (partition number 5 and up), and then tag the logical partition as swapa (82).

When you're in installation, it will mention cylinders. The number of cylinders is proportional to the capacity of your hard drive. In other words, if you have a 2.5 gig hard drive that has 620 cylinders, 310 cylinders is equal to somewhere between 1.2 and 1.3 gigs. To find out how many bytes a cylinder is on your hard drive, divide the number of bytes there are (2,500,000,000 in my case) by the number of cylinders (620). The result for me would be about 4,032,258 bytes, or around 4 megabytes a cylinder.
Install Software Packages

After putting a new partition layout on your hard drive, Red Hat installation now leads you up to installing the software that will come with your system. If you've got the room, go ahead and do a full installation. The process is pretty straightforward, and all you do is press [Enter] a few times and all the packages you select will be installed.

If you want to compile programs yourself (or get into programming sometime), be sure to install the development packages. I would also suggest installing the networking packages. It's safe to install all the packages, but if you're short on hard drive space just choose the packages that you don't think you'll need, and if you need them later, you can install them separately. For now don't worry about it.
Install LILO, the Linux Loader

Make sure you install LILO, the bootloader, unless you really know what you're doing and/or already have another bootloader that you know can load Linux. If you don't install LILO, make sure you have LOADLIN.EXE somewhere, and the Linux kernel (a file called vmlinuz usually) which you can get from a friend who might already be using Linux. You can later use LOADLIN with the kernel you have on your Linux system, which should be copied onto your DOS/FAT partition so that you can load it with LOADLIN.
Reboot

When Red Hat installation is finished, reboot without the floppies in the drive. It will show a prompt:

LILO boot:

That's where you type 'linux' (or Linux, or LiNUX.. it's not case sensitive). When it shows a login prompt, type 'root' as the username and for the password, type in what you set the password as in Red Hat installation.

Your Linux struggle begins. Prove yourself worthy. Read other portions of this guide. :-)
Jumping Points

If you don't know what to do now, there's plenty! You can get your graphical interface set up, you can get connected to the Internet, and learn some Linux commands. And that's just the beginning. There are more pages in this guide to keep you occupied for a while. :-)

1. Accessing Your Floppy Drive, CD-ROM Drive, and Other Partitions
2. Configuring X
3. Installing Software Packages
4. Linux Commands
5. Setting Up a Dialup PPP Connection

You should also check for updates to Red Hat at http://www.redhat.com/support/docs/errata.html. These should plug up security holes and fix bugs that might have been in the software packages. To install these, read the quick guide on using RPM.

Send all feedback to jgo@local.net. You can also use the help form or guestbook.

Copyright © 1997-1998 Joshua Go (jgo@local.net). All rights reserved. Permission to use, distribute, and copy this document is hereby granted. You may modify this document as long as credit to me is given.


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